Tuesday, March 20, 2012

¿Como nos comunicamos? A Brief Lesson on Spanish Grammar

Some Spanish Grammar concepts I've been studying over the past two days...


Uses of Subjunctive
  • Verbs of "mental activity" such as creer, pensar, considerar are followed by an indicative when used affirmatively.

Creer/ Pensar/ Considerar + que+ Indicative

Ejemplos (examples): Creo que debes comes mas chocolate.
                                      (I think you should eat more chocolate.)
                                      Pensamos que vuelas a Italia. 
                                      (We think you should fly to Italy.)            

  • However when used in the negative form, subjunctive must be used in the following subordinate clause.

No + Creer/ Pensar/ Considerar + que+ Subjunctive

Ejemplos (examples):No creo que comas mas chocolate.
                                      (I don't think you should eat more chocolate.)
                                      No pensamos que vueles a Italia. 
                                      (We don't think you should fly to Italy.)


Reflexive Verbs
  • In sentence containing reflexive verbs , the subject and object of the verb are the same person. In Spanish reflexive verbs are always accompanied by a reflexive pronoun.

Divertirse (to amuse oneself)
Me     Diverto
Te      Divertes
Se      Diverte
Nos   Divertimos
Os     Divertís
Se      Diverten

*When you translate a reflexive to English, it often doesn't have a reflexive pronoun or the reflexive is "understood" i.e Lavarse- to wash (to wash oneself)

Ejemplos (examples) :
Ducharse (to shower)  Vesitirse (to dress)   Hacerse (to become)
Peinarse (to comb)      Ponerse (to put)        Darse (to give) 


Uses of sunbjunctive

Como si (as if) + subjuntive
  • Subjunctive is always used after "Como si "  

Ana me miró como si estuviera loco. 
(Ana looked at me as if I was mad.)

How to express "for" with a period of time.
  • For actions referring to an action which began in the past and is still/ was going on, maybe expressed in the following ways:

Lleva + Gerundio = 
Lleva esperando media hora 
(I've been waiting for an hour)
Desde Hace + Tiempo
Espero desde hace media hora 
(I have been waiting since two hours)
Desde* + Fecha
Espero desde 1998. 
(I have waited since 1998)
Hace + Tiempo + que
Hace media hora que espero. 
(Its been half and hour since I've been waiting)

[ * Desde = since ]

  • "For" referring to the duration of a time period is conveyed through 
  • "por" or "durante"

Voy a comer por 2 horas. 
(I am going to eat for two hours) 

Romeo buscó para Julieta durante el anos de guerra. 
(Romeo searched for Juliet during the years of the war.)


Lo + adjective 
  • "Lo" is often followed by an adjective in the masculine singular form creating an abstract noun. 
  • In English = "the (adjective) thing

Lo bonito es que el novio esperó para su amor. 
(The beauty is that the boyfriend waited for his love.)


Uses of subjunctive
  •  Subjunctive is used with the following expression to make value judgments and are usually impersonal.

A mí me parece bien/mal           Vale la pena              Es imprescindible
Es normal                                  Hace falta                 Es necesario  
Sería mejor                                Es importante           Más vale
  • These expressions are usually followed by the infinitive.

Sería mejor reducir el uso de los moviles. 
(Its better to reduce the use of mobiles.)
  • However when the subject changes:

Expression + que + subjunctive

Es importante que el cuerpo tenga suficiente agua en esto clima calor. 
(Its important that the body had enough water in this hot weather)

*dusts chalk of fingers*
Hope you had a good class! :)


Edward Maya ft Vika Jigulin Desert Rose

Info: Edexcel Spanish for A Level (Chapter 7, 
pages -131,133,135,137,141 & 143)

Photos: WeHeartit 

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