Some Spanish Grammar concepts I've been studying over the past two days...
Uses of Subjunctive
- Verbs of "mental activity" such as creer, pensar, considerar are followed by an indicative when used affirmatively.
Creer/ Pensar/ Considerar + que+ Indicative
Ejemplos (examples): Creo que debes comes mas chocolate.
(I think you should eat more chocolate.)
Pensamos que vuelas a Italia.
(We think you should fly to Italy.)
- However when used in the negative form, subjunctive must be used in the following subordinate clause.
No + Creer/ Pensar/ Considerar + que+ Subjunctive
Ejemplos (examples):No creo que comas mas chocolate.
(I don't think you should eat more chocolate.)
No pensamos que vueles a Italia.
(We don't think you should fly to Italy.)
- In sentence containing reflexive verbs , the subject and object of the verb are the same person. In Spanish reflexive verbs are always accompanied by a reflexive pronoun.
Divertirse (to amuse oneself)
*When you translate a reflexive to English, it often doesn't have a reflexive pronoun or the reflexive is "understood" i.e Lavarse- to wash (to wash oneself)
Ejemplos (examples) :
Ducharse (to shower) Vesitirse (to dress) Hacerse (to become)
Peinarse (to comb) Ponerse (to put) Darse (to give)
Uses of sunbjunctive
Como si (as if) + subjuntive
- Subjunctive is always used after "Como si "
Ana me miró como si estuviera loco.
(Ana looked at me as if I was mad.)
How to express "for" with a period of time.
- For actions referring to an action which began in the past and is still/ was going on, maybe expressed in the following ways:
Lleva + Gerundio =
Lleva esperando media hora
(I've been waiting for an hour)
Desde Hace + Tiempo =
Espero desde hace media hora
(I have been waiting since two hours)
Desde* + Fecha =
Espero desde 1998.
(I have waited since 1998)
Hace + Tiempo + que =
Hace media hora que espero.
(Its been half and hour since I've been waiting)
[ * Desde = since ]
- "For" referring to the duration of a time period is conveyed through
- "por" or "durante"
Voy a comer por 2 horas.
(I am going to eat for two hours)
Romeo buscó para Julieta durante el anos de guerra.
(Romeo searched for Juliet during the years of the war.)
Lo + adjective
- "Lo" is often followed by an adjective in the masculine singular form creating an abstract noun.
- In English = "the (adjective) thing
Lo bonito es que el novio esperó para su amor.
(The beauty is that the boyfriend waited for his love.)
Uses of subjunctive
- Subjunctive is used with the following expression to make value judgments and are usually impersonal.
A mí me parece bien/mal Vale la pena Es imprescindible
Es normal Hace falta Es necesario
Sería mejor Es importante Más vale
- These expressions are usually followed by the infinitive.
Sería mejor reducir el uso de los moviles.
(Its better to reduce the use of mobiles.)
- However when the subject changes:
Expression + que + subjunctive
Es importante que el cuerpo tenga suficiente agua en esto clima calor.
(Its important that the body had enough water in this hot weather)
*dusts chalk of fingers*
Hope you had a good class! :)
♪Edward Maya ft Vika Jigulin Desert Rose
Info: Edexcel Spanish for A Level (Chapter 7,
pages -131,133,135,137,141 & 143)